The essential Olmsted
Home tomorrow night? You can catch the newest documentary on Frederick Law Olmsted on PBS. Entitled Frederick Law Olmsted: Designing America, this is a basic overview of the seminal landscape architect’s career, starting with Central Park and ending with his final projects in Massachusetts and North Carolina. But it’s the middle section that is of most interest to those of us in Western New York. It deals with Olmsted’s work in Buffalo, where he created his first park and parkway system, and Niagara Falls, the first state park in America.
When it comes to landscape design in America, you start with Olmsted, but you must also wrestle with that fact that his career is so riddled with contradictions. On the one hand, Olmsted is the most fervent advocate for the preservation of scenic beauty that we have ever had or ever will have. He saw a Niagara Falls desecrated by paper mills—where the Falls could only be seen for a fee—and successfully advocated for a place where wild beauty could be preserved for the benefit of the populace, an unheard of notion at the time. On the other hand, Olmsted’s designs were always intended for human consumption—conservation of nature was always secondary, if it was even a factor at all. The fact that these contradictory missions existed and thrived in the same mind is but one facet of his genius.
The film is narrated by Stockard Channing and has a standard documentary structure, with much panning over archival images à la Ken Burns, incisive commentary by a series of experts (including Olmsted Conservancy President Thomas Herrera Mischler, shown above), and lovely contemporary footage of Olmsted sites throughout America. It is co-produced by our PBS TV station, WNED-TV Buffalo/Niagara and Florentine Films/Hott Productions, with both national and local funders.
Here are some of my favorite quotes, some from FLO, some from the doc’s interviewees:
•It was a pestilential spot; it was filthy, squalid, and disgusting, filled with heaps of rubbish. It had rocks; it had swamps; it was treeless. [the site that would become Central Park]
•The plan when you look at it from a classically minded point of view, is beautiful and welcoming and, by comparison to a Parisian park, chaotic. It has no obvious inner architecture. [the Olmsted/Vaux Greensward plan for Central Park]
•It was this notion of a city within a park that was so unique—nothing had been achieved on this scale that it was achieved in Buffalo. It is the most comprehensive network the two did together and then becomes a template that is repeated by Olmsted and other firms in cities throughout the country.
•I have all my life been considering distant effects and always sacrificing immediate success and applause to that of the future.
•The thing that most strikes me about Olmsted as a man is the deep, deep vein of melancholy that runs through all his writing. He was a serious man and I think that the seriousness of purpose is what unites his work.
•The gem of Niagara Falls Park is Goat Island, and to Olmsted and Vaux it was the most beautiful part. Areas of it [still] are as they would have known it. If the mist is rising at the right angle, you can put yourself back in time.
•He was a deep believer in artifice. Central Park is an artificial design, every bit as artificial as Disney World. He was very good as creating stage sets for human life.
•Guard against the impulse to fill up space with things.
The last quote is my favorite. Of course, many if not most of the Olmsted parks have become filled with things that he never intended should be there—golf courses, zoos, parking lots, baseball diamonds, snack bars, and much, much more. But in many if not most cases, the beauty has remained. (Though I could do without the golf courses, which have intruded on two of the Buffalo parks.) Utility was always part of the plan.
It seems there are at least two Olmsteds. There is the respecter and protector of natural beauty—without whom we might not have those vestiges of wild America that remain today. Then there is Olmsted the magician of contrived space, without whom we might lack those respites from urban congestion that remain in so many of our cities. There are probably other Olmsteds too, and that’s why the man is so fascinating—and why there will continue to be documentaries.